Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics 2024 By Risk, Factor, Treatments

Samruddhi Yardi
Samruddhi Yardi

Updated · Apr 8, 2024

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Introduction

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics: Ischemic Heart Disease, also known as Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) or Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), is a common and severe medical condition that affects the heart.

It is characterized by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, leading to inadequate oxygen supply, and subsequently, damage to the heart tissue. The primary cause of IHD is the gradual build-up of fatty deposits, known as plaques, within the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart.

IHD is a leading cause of death globally and is responsible for a significant proportion of cardiovascular-related mortality. It can lead to various complications, including angina (chest pain), heart failure, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), and even sudden cardiac death.

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics

Editor’s Choice

  • The Global AI In Cardiology Market was valued at USD 1.5 Billion in 2023 and is projected to reach a substantial growth of USD 40.5 Billion by 2033, with a CAGR of 39.4%.
  • IHD is the leading cause of death globally, accounting for approximately 16% of all deaths.
  • In the United States, IHD is responsible for more than 1 in 7 deaths, making it the leading cause of mortality.
  • Approximately 17.9 million people died from cardiovascular diseases, including IHD, in 2022, representing 32% of all global deaths.
  • IHD is more common in men than women, with men having a higher risk of developing the condition.
  • High blood pressure, smoking, and high cholesterol are significant risk factors for IHD.
  • As of 2021, it was estimated that around 240 million people worldwide were living with IHD.
  • IHD is responsible for a substantial economic burden, including healthcare costs and lost productivity, amounting to billions of dollars globally.

(Source: World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Heart Association, World Heart Federation, Circulation Research)

Types of IHD Key Statistics

Stable Angina

  • Stable angina is the most common manifestation of ischemic heart disease, affecting millions of people worldwide.
  • It is estimated that approximately 9.4 million adults in the United States have stable angina.

(Source: World Health Organization, American Heart Association)

Unstable Angina

  • Unstable angina is a more severe form of angina that poses a higher risk of heart attack or acute coronary syndrome.
  • Among patients presenting with chest pain, about 10-20% are diagnosed with unstable angina.

(Source: British Heart Foundation, European Heart Journal)

Acute Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)

  • Acute myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is a life-threatening condition resulting from reduced or blocked blood flow to the heart muscle.
  • Each year, there are approximately 805,000 heart attacks in the United States, with about 605,000 being first heart attacks and 200,000 recurrent attacks.

(Source: American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association)

Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease

  • Chronic ischemic heart disease refers to long-term, recurring episodes of reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.
  • It is estimated that more than 26 million people worldwide live with chronic ischemic heart disease.

(Source: Circulation, European Heart Journal)

Type of IHDDescription
Stable AnginaChest pain or discomfort triggered by physical activity or emotional stress.
Unstable AnginaChest pain that occurs at rest or with minimal exertion may signal an impending heart attack.
Myocardial Infarction (MI)Commonly known as a heart attack, it occurs when a coronary artery is completely blocked, leading to heart muscle damage.
Silent IschemiaIschemia (lack of blood flow) to the heart occurs without any noticeable symptoms.
Prinzmetal’s AnginaAngina is caused by coronary artery spasms, often occurring at rest and in the early morning.
Microvascular AnginaChest pain results from abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels (microvessels) of the heart.
No Reflow PhenomenonInadequate blood flow even after restoring blood flow in a blocked artery.
Syndrome XChest pain in the absence of significant coronary artery blockages.
Coronary Slow FlowReduced blood flow in the coronary arteries despite no apparent blockages.
Cardiac Syndrome XChest pain and other heart-related symptoms with normal coronary arteries on angiography.

Regional Variation in Ischemic Heart Disease

  • Europe had the highest age-standardized death rate from Ischemic Heart Disease in 2021, with 148.1 deaths per 100,000 population.
  • The Eastern Mediterranean region had the highest percentage of premature deaths (under 70 years) attributed to Ischemic Heart Disease, accounting for 45.8% of total deaths in the region in 2021.
  • The Western Pacific region experienced a significant increase in the number of Ischemic Heart Disease cases, rising from 6.5 million cases in 1990 to 9.1 million cases in 2021.
  • In South Asia, Ischemic Heart Disease was the leading cause of years of life lost due to premature death in 2021, accounting for 12.3% of total disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the region.
  • The Americas showed a decline in age-standardized death rates from Ischemic Heart Disease, decreasing from 103.7 deaths per 100,000 populations in 1990 to 66.5 deaths per 100,000 populations in 2021.

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics by Age

  • Age group 45-64: The prevalence of Ischemic Heart Disease in this age group is 17.4%.
  • Age group 65-74: The prevalence of Ischemic Heart Disease in this age group is 27.7%.
  • Age group 75 and older: The prevalence of Ischemic Heart Disease in this age group is 36.7%.
Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics by Race/Ethnicity

  • Non-Hispanic Black individuals have a higher prevalence of IHD compared to other racial/ethnic groups, with a prevalence rate of approximately 8.1%.
  • Non-Hispanic White individuals have an IHD prevalence rate of around 7.2%.
  • Hispanic individuals have an IHD prevalence rate of about 6.0%.
  • Non-Hispanic Black individuals experience higher mortality rates from IHD, with approximately 123 deaths per 100,000 populations.
  • Non-Hispanic White individuals have an IHD mortality rate of around 116 deaths per 100,000 populations.)
  • Hispanic individuals have an IHD mortality rate of about 100 deaths per 100,000 population.

(Source: Circulation)

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics by Gender

  • Prevalence: Ischemic Heart Disease is more common in males, with approximately 7.6% of adult men affected globally, compared to 5.0% of adult women.
  • Mortality: Ischemic Heart Disease remains the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. However, the mortality rate is higher in men, accounting for 8.9 million male deaths and 5.2 million female deaths in 2019.
  • Age at Onset: Men are more likely to experience Ischemic Heart Disease in a younger generation compared to women. The average age of onset for men is around 65 years, while for women, it is around 72 years.
  • Risk Factors: Certain risk factors for Ischemic Heart Disease, such as smoking and physical inactivity, tend to be more prevalent in men, contributing to their higher incidence rates.

(Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Causes and Risk Factors – Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics

  • Atherosclerosis contributes to around 90% of all Ischemic Heart Disease cases.
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a significant risk factor for Ischemic Heart Disease, affecting approximately 70% of patients.
  • Hyperlipidemia (high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides) is present in more than 50% of Ischemic Heart Disease cases.
  • Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of Ischemic Heart Disease by 2 to 4 times, and approximately 30% of people with diabetes develop the condition.
  • Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor, accounting for about 35% of Ischemic Heart Disease cases worldwide.
  • Lack of physical activity contributes to a 1.5 to 2.4 times higher risk of developing Ischemic Heart Disease.
  • Unhealthy eating habits, such as diets high in saturated fats, trans fats, and refined sugars, can lead to 1.5 to 2 times higher risks of ischemic heart disease.

(Source: American Heart Association, World Health Organization)

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics – Prevention and Management

Lifestyle Modifications

  • Maintaining a healthy diet, including consuming five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, can reduce the risk of heart disease by about 20%.
  • Engaging in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week can lower the risk of heart disease by approximately 30-40%.
  • Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and maintaining a healthy weight can collectively prevent about 25% of heart disease cases.

(Source: AHA, World Heart Federation)

Medications and Pharmacological Interventions

  • In patients with a history of heart attack, statin therapy can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events by up to 50%.
  • Combining multiple cholesterol-lowering medications (e.g., statins and PCSK9 inhibitors) can lead to an additional 50% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels.
  • As part of the 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol management guidelines, statin therapy is recommended for individuals with diabetes, as it can lower the risk of cardiovascular events by approximately 30%.

(Source: ESC, AHA)

Invasive Treatments (Stents, Angioplasty, Bypass Surgery)

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery can reduce the risk of death in patients with severe coronary artery disease by 20-30% compared to medical therapy alone.
  • Drug-eluting stents have significantly reduced the rate of restenosis (re-narrowing of arteries) to less than 10%, improving long-term outcomes.
  • Primary PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) performed within 90 minutes of hospital arrival has been associated with a substantial reduction in mortality compared to delayed treatment.

(Source: JAMA, AHA, European Heart Journal)

Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs:

  • Cardiac rehabilitation programs have been shown to reduce all-cause mortality by 20-30% in patients with heart disease.
  • Participation in cardiac rehab can lead to a 50% reduction in the risk of hospital readmission for heart-related issues.
  • Women participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs tend to experience greater improvements in quality of life compared to men.

(Source: Circulation)

Use of Aspirin for Secondary Prevention

  • Long-term aspirin use in patients with a history of heart attack can reduce the risk of a subsequent heart attack by approximately 40%.
  • Aspirin therapy is recommended for individuals with stable coronary artery disease, reducing the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction (heart attack) by about 30%.
  • Aspirin therapy is associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of recurrent stroke in patients with a history of ischemic stroke.

(Source: The Lancet, European Heart Journal, Stroke)

Lifestyle Risk Factors:

  • Poor diet, including low consumption of whole grains, is estimated to cause around 10.4 million deaths globally, contributing to heart disease and other chronic conditions.
  • Physical inactivity is responsible for approximately 5.3 million deaths worldwide, making it one of the leading risk factors for heart disease and mortality.
  • An unhealthy diet, characterized by a high intake of processed and unhealthy foods, is associated with a 30% increased risk of developing coronary heart disease.

(Source: Circulation)

Blood Pressure Control

  • Proper blood pressure control can reduce the risk of stroke by approximately 35-40% and the risk of heart attack by about 20-25%.
  • Treating hypertension effectively can lower the risk of heart failure by up to 64%.
  • Lowering systolic blood pressure by just 10 mmHg can lead to a 15% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events.

(Source: AHA, JACC)

Smoking Cessation

  • Smokers are more than twice as likely to suffer a heart attack compared to non-smokers.
  • Quitting smoking at any age can result in substantial benefits, with a 50% reduced risk of heart disease within 1-2 years of cessation.
  • Smokers who quit have a 70% reduced risk of dying from coronary heart disease compared to those who continue smoking.

(Source: European Heart Journal, NEJM)

Role of Exercise

  • Engaging in regular aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by about 20-25%.
  • Moderate-intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, for 30 minutes a day can lower the risk of heart disease by 30-40%.
  • Regular exercise is associated with a 20-30% reduction in cardiovascular mortality risk.

(Source: AHA, Mayo Clinic, European Heart Journal)

Public Health Initiatives and Awareness Campaigns

Heart Health Awareness Month” Campaign

  • During the Heart Health Awareness Month campaign in February 2022, there was a 15% increase in public awareness of Ischemic Heart Disease symptoms and risk factors.

Quit Smoking for a Healthy Heart” Initiative

  • In the first year of the initiative’s implementation, 10,000 individuals successfully quit smoking, leading to an estimated 20% reduction in the risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in the targeted population.

Healthy Heart Schools Program

  • As a result of the Healthy Heart Schools Program, 75% of participating schools reported an increase in physical activity among students, potentially contributing to a decreased risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in the long term.

Know Your Numbers” Campaign

  • The “Know Your Numbers” campaign, which focused on promoting regular health check-ups and blood pressure screenings, led to a 25% increase in the number of individuals with hypertension seeking medical attention, potentially reducing the incidence of Ischemic Heart Disease.

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics – Economic Burden

  • In the United States, the annual healthcare costs associated with IHD were estimated to be over $219 billion.
  • IHD is a leading cause of disability and premature mortality, resulting in significant lost productivity and workforce impact worldwide.
  • In the U.S., the estimated indirect costs related to lost productivity and workforce impact due to IHD were approximately $105 billion per year.
  • In Europe, IHD-related hospitalization costs accounted for a substantial proportion of healthcare expenditures.
  • A study conducted in the European Union estimated that the hospitalization costs for IHD amounted to approximately €9.3 billion annually.
  • IHD patients often require long-term medication and treatments to manage their condition.
  • The global spending on cardiovascular drugs, including those used to treat IHD, reached nearly $170 billion in 2020.

(Source: American Heart Association, Circulation, European Heart Journal, Statista)

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics by Country

United States

  • In the United States, approximately 18.2 million adults have been diagnosed with Ischemic Heart Disease.
  • Ischemic Heart Disease accounts for around 365,914 deaths per year in the United States, as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • Every year, there are approximately 805,000 new cases of myocardial infarction (heart attack) in the United States.
  • The economic burden of Ischemic Heart Disease, including healthcare costs and lost productivity, is estimated to be over $219 billion annually in the United States.
  • In the United States, about 20% of adults are smokers, which is a significant risk factor for Ischemic Heart Disease.

(Source: American Heart Association, CDC)

India

  • India has a high burden of Ischemic Heart Disease, with over 32 million people diagnosed with the condition.
  • Ischemic Heart Disease is responsible for approximately 28% of all deaths in India.
  • Every year, nearly 6 million new cases of coronary heart disease are reported in India.
  • Around 12% of the adult population in India has diabetes, which is a significant risk factor for Ischemic Heart Disease.
  • Only 2% of Indians are aware of all heart attack symptoms.

China

  • Over 11% of the Chinese adult population has coronary heart disease, as reported by the Journal of the American Heart Association.
  • Ischemic Heart Disease accounts for about 40% of all deaths in China.
  • China experiences more than 700,000 deaths due to acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) each year.
  • Approximately 28% of Chinese adults are smokers, increasing their risk of Ischemic Heart Disease, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • China has over 500 chest pain centers dedicated to treating Ischemic Heart Disease.

Brazil

  • Approximately 7.6 million Brazilians have been diagnosed with Ischemic Heart Disease.
  • Ischemic Heart Disease accounts for around 28% of all deaths in Brazil.
  • Brazil experiences over 300,000 hospitalizations annually due to acute myocardial infarction (heart attack.
  • Obesity affects around 20% of the adult population in Brazil.
  • Only 30% of adults in Brazil meet the WHO recommendations for physical activity, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO).

United Kingdom

  • In the United Kingdom, around 2.3 million people are living with coronary heart disease.
  • Ischemic Heart Disease accounts for approximately 64,000 deaths each year in the UK.
  • The UK reports approximately 188,000 hospital admissions for heart attacks annually.
  • Over 29% of adults in the UK are obese, increasing their risk of Ischemic Heart Disease.
  • Nearly 50% of patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the UK do not take their prescribed medications as directed.

Recent Developments

Diagnostic Electrocardiograph Market Growth:

  • The diagnostic electrocardiograph market has seen substantial expansion, with forecasts highlighting growth across various regions, including Asia-Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa.
  • Key metrics such as market size and share are provided for specific countries within these regions, indicating a broadening scope of electrocardiograph diagnostic tools catering to ischemic heart disease and other cardiovascular conditions​​.

Innovative Treatments and Drug Approvals:

  • Mavacamten is under evaluation for treating cardiovascular diseases, with a focus on Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), a leading hereditary cardiovascular disease. Trials have focused on mavacamten’s effects on symptoms, function, and various health markers in patients with HCM​​.
  • Jardiance (Empagliflozin), an SGLT2 inhibitor, has received positive recommendations for treating symptomatic Chronic Heart Failure, demonstrating significant risk reductions in cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for heart failure. This is part of a larger clinical program exploring the impact of empagliflozin across a range of cardio-renal-metabolic conditions​​.
  • Zynquista (Sotagliflozin), targeting heart failure, is in pre-registration phase. It is a dual inhibitor of SGLT1 and SGLT2, playing a crucial role in glucose control. The FDA is reviewing an application for Zynquista to reduce cardiovascular disease risks, hospitalization for heart failure, and urgent heart failure visits in adults with Type 2 Diabetes​​.

Market and Pharmaceutical Landscape

  • The landscape for cardiovascular disease treatment and diagnostics is witnessing substantial innovation and product development. This includes both pharmaceuticals and medical devices aimed at improving outcomes for patients with various cardiovascular conditions.
  • Companies such as Sanofi, BMS, Novartis, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca, Amgen, Merck, Abbott, and others are actively involved in cardiovascular drug development. Concurrently, Medtech players like Medtronic, St. Jude Medical, Boston Scientific, and Edwards Lifesciences are enhancing the cardiovascular medical devices market​​.

Conclusion

Ischemic Heart Disease Statistics – Ischemic heart disease remains a significant global health burden, accounting for a substantial number of deaths and disabilities each year.

The prevalence of this condition is still on the rise due to various risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy diets, and increasing aging populations.

Despite advancements in medical treatments and interventions, preventive measures and public health initiatives play a crucial role in reducing the incidence and impact of ischemic heart disease.

Continued research and awareness are essential to address this critical issue and improve cardiovascular health worldwide.

FAQs

What is Ischemic Heart Disease?

Ischemic Heart Disease, also known as Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), is a condition where the blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced or blocked due to the narrowing or obstruction of the coronary arteries. It is the most common type of heart disease and a leading cause of heart attacks.

What are the risk factors for Ischemic Heart Disease?


Several factors can increase the risk of developing IHD, including:

– High blood pressure (hypertension)
– High cholesterol levels
– Smoking
– Diabetes
– Family history of heart disease
– Lack of physical activity
– Obesity
– Unhealthy diet (high in saturated and trans fats)
– Stress

What are the symptoms of Ischemic Heart Disease?

The common symptoms of IHD include:

– Chest pain or discomfort (angina), typically experienced as pressure, squeezing, or tightness in the chest
– Pain or discomfort in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulder, or back
– Shortness of breath
– Nausea
– Fatigue
– Sweating

What are the treatment options for Ischemic Heart Disease?

Treatment aims to improve blood flow to the heart, alleviate symptoms, and prevent complications. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications (e.g., aspirin, statins, beta-blockers, and nitroglycerin), angioplasty with stent placement, or bypass surgery.

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Samruddhi Yardi

Samruddhi Yardi

Samruddhi Yardi has done her MBA in Marketing, and after working in sales for 2.5 years, she has shifted to the market research industry. As Samruddhi is a pharma graduate, she is working in the Healthcare domain as a Research associate. She also contributes to chemical, consumer goods, agriculture, and food & beverages.